Deng declared that the “biggest mistake” the Chinese Communist Party had made was “primarily in ideological and political education.” In subsequent circulars, the Chinese Communist Party described China as under siege by enemies out to indoctrinate China’s youth and snuff out Chinese values, culture and faith. The party launched what it called a Patriotic Education Campaign that over the past three decades has imbued its people with a resentful form of nationalism.
In the 1950s, Mao Zedong had stressed that China was a victor in the war against imperialism. But the Patriotic Education Campaign reinterpreted China’s history to portray China as a victim. The whole nation, the party’s Central Committee and the State Council noted in a document from August 1994, must study China’s humiliating history from the Opium War on to grasp the evil intent of what came to be known as “hostile Western forces.” As the Ambassador James