Fact Sheets: Public Views About Science
This roundup of findings shows public views about science-related issues and the role of science in South Korean society. The findings come from a Pew Research Center survey conducted across 20 publics in Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Russia, the U.S., Canada and Brazil from October 2019 to March 2020.
Ratings of medical treatments, scientific achievements and STEM education in South Korea
Majorities in most of the 20 publics surveyed saw their medical treatments in a favorable light on the eve of the global pandemic. Medical treatments were often seen more favorably than achievements in other areas.
Across the 20 publics, a median of 59% say their medical treatments are at least above average. South Korea is among the survey publics most likely to rate their medical treatments as the best in the world or above average: 80% say this. Only 3% of South Koreans think their medical treatments are below average.
About seven-in-ten South Koreans (69%) say their technological achievements are above average or the best in the world – the highest share of any of the 20 publics surveyed. Ratings are less positive for scientific achievements: 40% view them as above average or better. When it comes to STEM education, 45% in South Korea say their country’s primary and secondary school STEM education is the best in the world or above average. A similar share (42%) says this about STEM education in South Korea at the university level.
Majorities in all publics agree that being a world leader in scientific achievement is at least somewhat important, but the share who view this as very important varies by public. A 20-public median of 51% place the highest level of importance on being a science world leader. In South Korea, 63% of people say being a world leader in scientific achievements is very important.
Overall, there is broad agreement among these 20 publics that government investment in scientific research is worthwhile. A median of 82% say government investments in scientific research aimed at advancing knowledge are usually worthwhile for society over time. In South Korea, 88% of people say this.
Views on artificial intelligence, food science and childhood vaccines in South Korea
Majorities in most publics see their government’s space exploration program as a good thing for society. Across the 20 publics, a median of 72% say their government’s space exploration program has mostly been a good thing for society. In South Korea, a large majority (85%) says the Korean Aerospace Research Institute’s space exploration program has been good for society.
Public views on artificial intelligence (AI) and using robots to automate jobs are more varied from public to public. A median of 53% say the development of AI, or computer systems designed to imitate human behaviors, has mostly been a good thing for society, while 33% say it has been a bad thing. The Center survey also finds that publics offer mixed views about the use of robots to automate jobs. Across the 20 publics, a median of 48% say such automation has mostly been a good thing, while 42% say it has been a bad thing.
In South Korea, people tend to have positive views of both developments. Overall, 69% say artificial intelligence has been good for society, while 22% say it has been bad. Views on the effect of workplace automation through robotics are fairly similar: 62% say workplace automation has been a good thing.
Across most of the publics surveyed, views about the safety of fruits and vegetables grown with pesticides, food and drinks with artificial preservatives and genetically modified foods tilt far more negative than positive. About half think produce grown with pesticides (median of 53%), foods made with artificial preservatives (53%) or genetically modified foods (48%) are unsafe. In South Korea, people are similarly skeptical. Only 24% say fruits and vegetables grown with pesticides are safe, while about half (51%) think they are unsafe, and 24% say they don’t know enough about this issue to say. About six-in-ten say food and drinks with artificial preservatives (59%) or genetically modified foods (57%) are unsafe.
When it comes to childhood vaccines such as the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, a median of 61% says the preventive health benefits of such vaccines are high, and a median of 55% thinks there is no or only a low risk of side effects. A slight majority of South Koreans say the preventive health benefits from the MMR vaccine are high (56%). South Koreans are less likely than many other publics to say there are no or low risks from childhood vaccines: Just 35% say this.
Views on climate and the environment in South Korea
Majorities across all 20 survey publics would prioritize protecting the environment even if it causes slower economic growth. A median of 71% would prioritize environmental protection. In South Korea, around six-in-ten (62%) think protecting the environment should be given priority, even if it causes slower economic growth and some loss of jobs. A smaller share (36%) thinks creating jobs should be the top priority, even if the environment suffers to some extent.
Public concern about global climate change has gone up over the past few years in many publics surveyed by the Center.
Majorities in all 20 publics say they are seeing at least some effects of climate change where they live. A median of 70% say they are experiencing a great deal or some effects of climate change where they live. South Koreans are especially likely to say this: 85% say climate change is affecting where they live a great deal (31%) or some (54%).
A 20-public median of 58% say their national government is doing too little to reduce the effects of climate change. Around half in South Korea say their government is doing too little (49%) to reduce the effects of climate change, while 42% say the government is doing about the right amount and just 5% say it is doing too much.
Find out more
Read the full report online.
All surveys were conducted with nationally representative samples of adults ages 18 and older. Here is the survey methodology used in each public.