Prime Minister Narendra Modi has re-ignited the old debate on self-reliant India. However, it is essential to note that the Aatmanirbhar Bharat of Modi differs from the failed import substitution strategy of Nehruvian India, and the old Swadeshi campaign with its distrust for globalisation and big industry and corporates. It is ‘not about being closed to the world’ but merging domestic production with global supply chains following global standards.
Nevertheless, in the discussions around Aatmanirbhar Bharat, three crucial areas have been missing: health, education, and technology.
A most crucial pillar of Aatmanirbhar Bharat is technology. Modern economic growth depends on the research and development produced in society. The import of technology cannot ensure its absorption as technology is a function of the population and society. So even when we are trying to import and indigenise technology,